Multilateral and bilateral cooperation Republic of Kazakhstan and Republic of India on the questions of security
Senior Teacher the Department of
World History and International Relations
E.A. Buketov Karaganda State University,
Republic of Kazakhstan
The legal base made between Republic of Kazakhstan and Republic of India in the field of policy, economy, culture, science and technical equipment have allowed developing cooperation within the framework of interaction at the multilateral level. In this context, Conference Building Measures in Asia (СICA) is important Asian initiative which purposes are based on aspiration of creation the regional mechanism on prevention measures of mistrust in Asia, preservations of stability and security on development and strengthening of a new system of relations between states in Asian region.
Republic of India is one of the key state-participants CICA and plays the important role during interaction and developments of cooperation within the framework of the Forum. Importance of the questions discussed in CICA repeatedly raised during official visits on high level by President the Republic of Kazakhstan N.A.Nazarbaev to India in 1992, 1996, and in the result of consultations of Ministries assistants for Foreign Affairs of two countries. In particularly, during of visit by summer 1994 year the deputy head Ministry of Foreign Affairs S.Hajdar and visit in September 1996 of vice-president of Republic of India of K.Naraijan it has been declared complete support on the side of India the Kazakhstan’s initiative on convocation CICA and necessity of continuation the further work on its realization.
For India in relation to CICA is characteristic the pragmatical approach. It is connected with strategically tasks of foreign policy of country aimed to strengthening of good-neighborhoods relations with neighboring countries and establishment practically feasible and effectual measures in South-Asian region. Thus, formulating the vision of probable ways of realizations process, Indian side marks necessity of the weighed approach at designing system of Asian security which it should be formed in spirit of cooperation, on the principles which are not excluding various methods of resolution of conflicts, including at bilateral, regional and global levels.
Use of tribune and teamwork in frameworks CICA considers by official New Delhi as opportunity of removal for discussion questions connected with most actual problems of Asian region, and also causing the greatest concern of India in its understanding of available threats of own national security. As indirect confirmation of such approach can serve continuity the policy of country directed on active participation in realization of the Kazakhstan’s initiative, without dependence from government taking place authority reflecting interests. The universal opportunities of CICA allowing to discuss a broad audience of international questions which are organically entered in foreign policy of the previous governments as known as «Gudzhral doctrine», government of pronationalist Bharaty Dzhanata Party head by A.Vadzhpai.
The present government of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of India allocates special value to the participation in CICA. In this connection, it is necessary to note, that hide at the official level presence of intensity in mutual relations with China owing to mutual problems, connected with boundary questions compels New Delhi to put forward and support the thesis about indestructibility of borders and the territorial integrity of country. The same thesis also is widely used by the Indian government in connection with proceeding actions of separates movements in Kashmir, it representing for India serious threat in connection with active support of local separatists from Pakistan’ side authorities and it directed, finally on tearing away of this northern state from India.
As whole, despite of available contradictions of India with Pakistan and China, the Indian government is devoted to flexible and maximum constructive decision of arising contradictions. Confirmation to this is acceptance of the Declaration in September 1999, it becoming the first official document of CICA. Declaration contains substantive provisions of destruction international security, respect of sovereignty and the rights of states-participants, preservation of territorial integrity, non-interference to internal affairs each other, peace settlement of disputes, refusal of application of force, disarmament and control over arms, cooperation in social, trade, economical, cultural and humanitarian spheres, respect of fundamental laws of person according with principles of United Nations and international law.
Besides on results of the first summit of CICA, on June 4, 2002, the country-members has been signed two more documents: Almaty Act and Declaration of CICA on liquidation terrorism and development of dialogue of the civilizations, intended to strengthen security and to expand mutual trust among the countries-participants. Indian side was presented by prime minister of India A.B.Vadzhpai, which his participation in first summit of CICA has received the high estimation in political and public circles of Kazakhstan and India. The basic political forces of India have with satisfaction noted powerful results of official visit to Kazakhstan, including character of signed important documents in frameworks CICA, which «reflect mutual interest of two states in construction of a new form of bilateral and multilateral cooperation in millennium» . Characterizing this visit, Indian press repeatedly used such terms, as «historical moment in strengthening bilateral cooperation of New Delhi and Astana in the context of developing realities of modernity».
Such reaction of ruling authority is the important confirmation of actuality of the problems discussed at summit of CICA most sharply facing to India. It is necessary to note also, that carrying out of the first summit of CICA and the documents accepted in its frameworks already are used by India as one of tools of political pressing government of Pakistan with purpose of discontinuance a penetration of terrorist groupings to India. In this context, India as one of such arguments, counts Almaty declaration, one of which points is refusal of support of separatists having signed which Islamabad is obliged to accept concrete steps concerning obligations taken on .
Interest of India in development of Forum has been shown and during second summit CICA (June 17, 2006, Almaty) on which it have been discussed items on opening Secretary of CICA, creation of Special working group (SWG) on development of application the measures of trust CICA in economical, ecological and humanitarian measurements . Proceeding from this, necessity of creation SRG on development the measure of trust CICA in military-political measurement is underlined. Indian side ascertained that it is going and further actively to take part in work of CICA. In their opinion, CICA has all opportunities to become the authoritative forum for consultation on actual questions of regional security. As one of the advantages, this forum is that it is based on principle of voluntaries of members and consensuses approach to acceptance decision. The first assistant Ministry of Foreign Affairs of India SH. Saran, taking into account experience of participation of India in СААРК and regional forum АСЕАН, it has recommended to develop CICA in gradually and evolutionary way in view of Asian system of values.
The next session of Ministers of Foreign Affairs of countries-participants CICA has taken place in August 2008 in Almaty. By President of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbaev it has been declared, that initiative of Kazakhstan about convocation СICA proves efficiency more and more. Viability and importance of this international forum confirms that fact, during the present meeting to it three new participants have joined Jordan, Arab Emirates and Qatar. Within the framework of the forum by participants it has been marked, that the global policy will be determined in the near future financial crisis, rise of prices on oil and provides. In this connection, President of Kazakhstan has called participants of forum for cooperation and in economical measurement. Besides, in opinion of the head of state, it is necessary to expand partnership CICA and DCA-Dialogue on Cooperation in Asia as it is two sides of one medal .
Also by leaders was accepted decision on necessity of carrying out the next summit of CICA in 2010 that will form basis for the further development of process and possible creation of legal mechanism on its practical realization. Participation of India in this session will play the important role and in strengthening cooperation of India with Kazakhstan within the framework of the international regional organizations. For example, Kazakhstan as chair of the Shanghai cooperation of organization (SCO) has supported occurrence of India in SCO as observer on Astana summit in July 2005. At an initial stage, the government of India had been lead exploratory talk on this question with all countries, which are included in SCO, and their consent is received. By words of already Exs Minister of Foreign Affairs of India K. Singh, «struggle against terrorism and closer economical cooperation are two largest areas in which the Organization has undertaken important steps. In both areas, India is capable to bring the significant contribution to programs of SCO and it to assist in development of closer contacts between the countries-members of SCO. In addition, India is capable interests to revive intensive stream of ideas and trade with which blossoming well-known differed «New era of the Silk way» .
Interest of India in reception of the status of observer in SCO testifies not only to appeal to it of the purposes and tasks which they are put before itself with the Organization, but also about prospect which the country sees in interaction within the framework of interstate regional structures. The bases for this purpose, as is known are security issues and stability.
The declaration on creation SCO from June 15 in 2001 calls organization «to use huge potential and wide opportunities of mutually advantageous cooperation between states-members in economical and trading areas, to aspire of strengthening of the further development both bilateral and multilateral cooperation between states-members of organization, and also to variety of cooperation. For this purpose negotiating process is initiated in the field of trade and acceleration of investments in frameworks of SCO for formation of long-term multilateral economical and trading cooperation». Besides article 3 of Charter SCO determines spheres of cooperation the organization which include, except for other, «support, promotion, regional economical cooperation in various areas, creation of favorable conditions for trade and investments with the purpose of gradual achievement of a free stream of goods, capitals, services and technologies, effective utilization of available transport and communication infrastructure, expansion of transit opportunities of states – members of the organization and development of power systems; reliable methods of wildlife management, including water resources management in region and realization of special joint ecological programs and projects» .
At the first meeting of Ministers of Economy and Trade of countries-members of SOC in May 2002, special attention it has been inverted on trade and investments. In November 2002, ministers of transport of states-members of SCO came to the consent to develop transport system and to create the international transport corridor. Therefore, it is clear, that for again entered countries, such as India, concrete sectors for economical cooperation with countries-members of SCO, which already offer concrete opportunities for mutually advantageous cooperation between the countries, have been determined. Within the limits of trading and investment sectors, purpose of achievement «a free stream of goods, capitals, services and technologies» is very important. It shows that ultimate aim of the countries included in SCO, it is the creation of the integrated market, which together with inclusion of countries-observers accepted in SCO in July 2005 will cover an essential share of Eurasian space. Precisely as concentration on connection of transport networks in this region not only will speed up trading streams, but also will create the opportunity of contacts between simple people assisting stream of ideas, knowledge and also goods and services .
What is today the position of India concerning participation in this process? Having taken into account economical structure of India and parameters of its economical growth, answer should be for benefit of wider participation of India in plans of economical cooperation in SCO. With area 3.3 million sq. km and population 1.06 billion people, India is included into number of the largest economy of the world. India is one of leading places in the world on manufacture of rice, wheat, tobacco, tea and sugar cultures. In Indian economy, the sector of services that is estimated 51 % of annual manufacture is dominating, rest equally shares between agricultural and industrial sectors . However, India has one of the largest deposits of coal in world, among the priority purposes of India to achieve adequate supply by the energy necessary for steady economical growth.
Other essential fact that makes especially important participation of India by plans of economical cooperation in SCO, it that India is an integral part of global economy since it was won independence in 1947. India is one of the countries, which were united on January 1 in 1948 for creation of first global trading organization GATT (the General agreement under tariffs and trade). As active member of GАТТ India could assist in the formulation of international commercial policy, which it has taken into account in developing character of Indian economy, is especial for maintenance of flexibility tools of international commercial policy in balance requirements for coexistence of state and private sectors in development of national economy. Performance of this role proceeded after India since January 1 in 1995 year began one of founder for creation of World trading organization (WTO). Today in the international trading negotiations within the framework of WTO India plays the major role in creation of opportunities for all states-members of WTO in achievement of equal in rights and mutually advantageous results .
Considering such aspect, it is quite possible to determine some concrete areas of mutually advantageous in economical cooperation for India and countries-members in SCO. Priority list of spheres in which such cooperation can take place, are energy, science and technology, trade in sphere of services and transport. Certainly, mutually advantageous investments should support all these areas.
In power sector, actually all large manufacturers and consumers of oil-and-gas resources are countries-members of SCO. The great demand of India on import of oil and gas, which will grow, predictably, in view of steady rates of growth Indian economy makes logical mutually advantageous cooperation between participants of SCO making and exporting oil and gas. Minister of oil and natural gas of India have formulated opinion of Indian government on perspectives of cooperation in this sector in February 2005 in Astana: «Here in Asia, nature has placed a great mass of natural resources, basically minerals of fuel. Our continent is place of the largest deposits of oil. It also place of world reserves of gas where contains more than half of the stocks available in world… We should create Pan-Asiatic community of interests in which Asian buyers and Asian sellers become joint Asian investors in the common Asian actives… Cooperation in the field of energy sectors is instrument of growth and it opens prospects for wider Asian cooperation. If we managed to connect our national power networks in Pan-Asiatic network, all countries could use benefit» .
Alongside with that India is importer of oil and gas, it also has got experience and in the field of oil refining. For example, the oil refining factories constructed in the country by the Indian companies correspond to standards on protection of ecology. Such experience will be rather actual for cooperation in SCO.
In the field of science and technologies, countries-members of SCO have a national reserve of the highly skilled scientists borrowed in the advanced technological researches. Concrete areas can include space researches, start of satellites and technology of navigation, biotechnology, seismology, agricultural and medical branches, etc. Commercialization such technologies will give to our scientists the opportunity to present own researches and it will give huge advantage to our economy. India has bilateral programs for acceleration commercialization technologies with separate members of SCO. Through corresponding programs of cooperation in SCO, we can make use of experience by us in larger scales.
In sphere of services, India can share with countries-members of SCO recognized opportunities as global center of influence in trade of services. The basic line of action in India was creation «industry based on knowledge» which vivid example is the branch of program computer maintenance. Today experts from India take the advanced positions in global industry of services in various areas, such, financial services, bank’s systems, management, tourism, etc. Creation of educational and technologies institutes of world class in India has put in pawn the basis for organization and growth of industry based on knowledge. Progressive young generation of countries-members of SCO will promote an establishment of mutually advantageous cooperation between India and SCO in this direction, which, in turn, it is an important means in maintenance of employment of young generation.
Cooperation in sphere of transport is, perhaps, the most important area in which advantages of all countries included in SCO in near perspectives become obvious. Results of exploitation of transport communications connecting East and West are already shown in the increased volume of goods circulating between these countries. Revival of old transport communications, which it made a part of «the Great silk way» serves as reference point for cooperation of states in this sector in future. Participation of India in such projects as International transport corridor «North-South» can strengthen only importance of interaction in transport sector. Within of this sector India has already got experience in construction of transport networks such as railways, transportation, warehousing and distribution services which can be actual for SCO in construction of modern ports and terminals, including Caspian sea.
In opinion of experts of Institute of economy and policy the Republic of Kazakhstan, at the present stage when SCO has entered a new stage of adjustment and deepening of effective cooperation on priority directions of the activity, special value is given to increase in political weight of Organization. Expansion of this format testifying to adherence of countries-members of SCO to open dialogue, it represents itself as one of ways of strengthening not only its international authority, but also efficiency. Thereof such influential members of SCO as China, Russia and Kazakhstan welcomed intention playing a significant role in world and regional policy of India to receive the status of observer at the Organization. The states – members count, that the status of observer of India in SCO has positive consequences for organization. It will promote strengthening of regional stability and economical integration and it will raise coordination of efforts on counteraction to terrorism, extremism, struggle with them plays one of priority directions in policy of Southern Asian countries to which India and Pakistan concern. Besides, it will serve transformation SCO into powerful international organization capable to struggle for influence on world scene with any other alliances. Activity of India as perspective Asian country possessing in economical and political potential will facilitate SCO search of our place in system of the international organizations, that, in turn, it gives reason for efficiency of Organization as the instrument of maintenance of regional security .
However, at the further interaction with India it is necessary to take into account, that behind aspiration to receive the status of observer in Organization there is desire to advance, certainly, own interests, such as: expansion of export of Indian military goods and services on markets of Central Asia countries, establishment of military presence at region level with countries-participants of SCO, construction of oil pipeline Russia-China-India. Besides Kazakhstan’s analysts mark, that by one of purposes participation of India as observer in SCO is not only maintenance of own security in view of a new threats connected with terrorism and separatism, but also opportunities to play more appreciable role in internal affairs of Central Asia as India considers opportunity of reception of full membership in SCO.
On results of participation in summits of SCO in Shanghai in 2006 and in Bishkek, 2007 Minister of oil and gas industry of India M. Deora has noted: «India always had traditionally close both warm economical, political and cultural relations with Central Asia countries. Therefore, we are interested in forming modern and new contents to our connections with Central Asia. India would like to expand political, economical, trading and cultural obligations with all countries of region. In this connection, India is interested in further development of SCO and would like to involve more considerable and more actively itself in process of SCO, sharing with experience, professional knowledge and opportunities in spheres of information technologies, infrastructures, power etc. India is convinced, that close and more active relations between it and the Shanghai organization of cooperation, and also separately with each Central Asian country will promote the greater prosperity and development of all region, and also preservation of world, stability and security» .
For Kazakhstan, the deepening of political connections with India could become rather useful in rendering possible assistance on occurrence in international political and economical institutes, and in supports from its side of a new Kazakhstan’s initiatives. In this connection, Kazakhstan expects activization of cooperation with India not only in frameworks of CICA, SCO and other international organizations, bat also developing dialogue in the field of trade and economy sphere, coordination of efforts in struggle against international terrorism, religious extremism on the bilateral basis with purpose of coordination of joint actions in struggle against threats of modernity.
Let’s note, that as the result of consecutive and systematical activity of political government of India, armed forces of India are at qualitative and quantitative level for maintenance of internal and external protection of the state and they are one of the strongest armies in Southern- Asian region.
For Kazakhstan, India possessing in powerful, military and technical potential plays interest that is more practical. Experience of India being, as well as Kazakhstan, polyconfessional and polytechnic state is important in struggle against terrorism, religious extremism and separatism. In particular, actions are of interest for the Kazakhstan special services on revealing and suppression of the facts of illegal legalization of members of the terrorist and extremist organizations, pressing questions of interaction in struggle against international organized crime, and experience of Indian police officers on protection of social order in streets in case of occurrence of extreme situations.
Interest of Kazakhstan and India in development of bilateral cooperation in sphere of security has been reflected in Memorandum of military and technical cooperation between the Governments of countries , in Protocol between Committee on Defense industry of Ministry of economy and trade of Kazakhstan and Ministry of Defense of India, in Agreement on creation of joint working group on struggle with international terrorism . It is necessary to note, that conclusion of these documents in the field of military and technical cooperation between Republic of Kazakhstan and Republic of India have positive dynamics of development. In the first session of joint working group (Astana, October 21-22, 2002) have been achieved arrangements on scientific and technical cooperation in military area, modernization of available technical equipment and arms at Naval Forces of India, rendering of assistance in development Naval Forces of Kazakhstan, mutual visits of experts, and interaction between law enforcement bodies of two countries in the field of counteraction to terrorism, extremism and illegal traffic in arms.
In this connection, designated by President of Kazakhstan N.A. Nazarbaev in annual address to the nation Message titled, «Strategy of Kazakhstan’s entry into the ranks of the 50 most competitive countries of the world», tasks in strengthening and expansion of international cooperation in struggle against new threats and calls are especially actuality and they serve as mechanism of strengthening of mutually advantageous cooperation between Kazakhstan and India.
The second session of joint Kazakhstan-India working group on questions of international terrorism, interchange of information between Kazakhstan and Indian law enforcement bodies has taken place in March 20-21, 2002 in New Delhi. In addition, Kazakhstan and Indian sides had been marked internal situation in Afghanistan, which continues to remain difficult, and it is important for security and stability of Southern Asian and Central Asian regions.
During discussion of question on professional training for struggle against terrorism, Indian side has suggested to run courses and improvements of professional skill for the Kazakhstan’s experts on different aspects of struggle against terrorism. In this context on March 21, 2006, members of Kazakhstan’s delegation have visited the Center for preparation of military men for divisions of forces of national security of India and they have been acquainted with the common structure and the basic directions of activity the Center, in particular, including struggle against capture of hostages, investigation of explosions, security of protected persons from among VIP persons and special objects, carrying out of counterterrorist operations. On results of meeting, Kazakhstan and India came to consensus that in cooperation on the specific questions of counterterrorism and struggle against other kinds of crimes, it is necessary to have close coordination and regular contact between the interested departments with aim of maintenance of exchange with operative information in real time. It has been solved to come into contact between Central Asian regional information and coordination center in Almaty and Bureau under the control over drugs of India (Narcotics Control Bureau), and among center «Caspian Anti-terror» for participation of India in actions with aim of strengthening of cooperation in struggle with drugs .
Besides, to Indian side offered to consider the problem on interaction between military investigations of defensive departments in which the following directions of cooperation are stipulated: rendering on the gratuitous basis of material help in equipment of Kazakhstan’s departments of radio and electronic investigation, preparation of officers at language faculties in high schools of India on specialization English, Urdu, training of officers to military investigation etc.
Thus, considering multilateral and bilateral cooperation Republic of Kazakhstan and Republic of India on questions of security, it is necessary to note, that as priority area of bilateral partnership the joint opposition to international terrorism, organized crime, drugs traffic, and formation of system of continental security in frameworks acts CICA and SCO. Taking into account, decisions in frameworks of summits CICA has more declarative character, and in SCO India is only observer, not full member of this organization, Kazakhstan and India came to understanding of necessity developing the bilateral mutually advantageous strategic partnership for military and technical area with purpose of strengthening system of regional security as the whole.